Science Education in Nigeria have been facing a lot of problems which i will like to talk about as follows:
Security issue in Nigeria has been worrisome for more than five years now because of insurgence of Niger Delta and Boko Haram. Looking properly into this, it was politically motivated but later became religiously motivated.
The reason for the insurgence is unimportant to this write-up but its effects on science education development are very relevant.
People in Nigeria, especially the northern part of Nigeria and the Niger Delta region lives in fear of uncertainty of death from bomb explosion: of gunshot from terrorist or armed robber, many a time from kidnappers and also from the pipe line explosions.
The lives of nationals living in Nigeria are in perpetual danger of abduction or kidnapping. Lecturers and students don’t know their fate every day until they retired to bed at night; even while sleeping they cannot sleep and close their two eyes because of armed robbers.
The recent attacked on a northern university where students and lecturers were cold bloodedly murdered including a professor of chemistry and also the kidnapping of about two hundred and fifty female students from a federal government school and many more still remains a sleeplessness in academic arena.
Science infrastructures built with huge amount of money for schools had been destroyed while gas and oil installations vandalised; the consequential effects of these is on education.
Many parents have lost their job and the effect is on the children; these children could not complete their education and eventually drop out of schools.
These dropouts are used by politician as thugs, for assassinations and robbers robbing banks, poison the societies and make everybody feel unsafe. Majority of these dropout students are very brilliant who could have become renowned science educators which the country would be proud of.
Schools were closed down in many parts of the country; universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, secondary and primary schools where learning environment are no longer safe for learning remain in long compulsory holiday for months.
Many students were not able to attend schools regularly for fear of bomb explosion or kidnapping which affect their socially lives and also affect their learning.
Many brilliant students who should have been an asset for the academic institutions had been killed by terrorist while many had suffered untold hardship in the hands of kidnapper which later affected them both emotionally and academically.
Nigerian higher institutions have become a place of worry to everybody because of the activities of cultists. A cultist who graduated in school through examination malpractices in many time end up in classroom as a teacher since teacher is the easiest job anyone could get in Nigeria because of lack of professionalism.
The question that should come to mind is that, what can such teacher teach when he / she got the certificate by fraudulent means? These are many of the teachers we have in most of our schools; they got there through their godfathers who are politicians.
Corruption has eating deep into Nigeria system and it is manifesting in every sectors including education.
In Nigeria today it is not what you know but whom you know, that is why recruitment to job is tied down to criteria such as political favouritism, geographical area or quota system.
Many of the teacher training institutions and universities cannot boast of the best academic staff because the best probably do not have godfather who can help them.
Appointment is no longer based on merit but on whom you know and the amount you can offer for such job. Admission into higher institutions of learning is not on merit but on whom you know also.
Purchases of science equipment to schools are no longer done transparently since it is either the chief executive of the school or any of his or her relation who do the supply.
In this case they neither supply the required specification nor the required quantity; in most cases they don’t even supply anything. Most of the science laboratories are empty building or buildings filled with fake or obsolete science equipment which are useful for nothing but mere demonstration.
Money meant for staff training are diverted to personal account while selections of those who benefit in staff training is on whom you know syndrome. All these bounced back on the quality of science education the nation produces.
Nigerian leaders are corrupt that is why we lack stable political system of government which affect science education, In any stable political system, teachers and their education system are well catered for. Science teachers are not well catered for in Nigeria instead they are looked upon by the politicians as beggar.
Corruption is the greatest challenge to development of science education in Nigeria; corruption leads to many problems the country is facing presently.
It leads to slow movement of files in offices, extortion in highways, ghost workers in work places, election irregularities and many more.
Corruption makes school administrator mismanaged fund meant for purchasing science equipment and asked science teacher to make sure student still pass in examinations by all means.
In many universities and research institutes, research has become history because government preferred to use research money for election or hire security for the family of government officials than science education research.
Nigeria is a multi-ethnic country; this is affecting the country in many ways especially in education. The world is in era of science and technology; every nation is craving for development in Information and Communication Technology [ICT] which cannot be fully achieved without science education.
Parents encourages their children to study science oriented courses which is good; children who have no ability for such courses opted for courses in humanity and art.
When the time of employment come those who opted for humanity and art courses would be given job related to sciences without prerequisite qualification.
Those who originally studied sciences are schemed out of the job because of ethnicity; the attitude discourages young ones from studying science education.
Employment is no longer based on merit; those who are qualified for teaching science are not given employment because they don’t have ‘godfather’ in the government.
Teaching appointment is done based on bias and favouritism. This is affecting the development of science education in the nation.
There is corruption in the land and no one is spared neither is any organ of government spared. Lecturers in higher institutions have turned colleges and universities to supermarket shops where they sell hand-outs and books at outrageous prices.
Staffers of many polytechnics have taken over the affair of the institution because the chief executives are corrupt in awarding contract that never existed and mismanaged fund meant for science equipment.
They sell books and hand-outs at a ‘cutthroat’ price without being checked. Male lecturers molest female students who are not willing to dance to their music of promiscuous life style.
All these discouraged students who want to study science education and killed the morale of those who are studying the course already.
Scholarships and bursary meant for science students are diverted to non-science students because of ethnicity. Where the scholarship is given to science students they introduce unnecessary bureaucracy into it that students may not get the money for many years or give up of the scholarship.
Nigeria has not been having a stable political system of government since her independence in 1960.
Stable political system of government is very essential to educational development of any nation.
Military ruled for 34 years in Nigeria out of 55 years of existence as a sovereign nation; these years can be regarded as an era of giant waste in both human and natural resources for Nigerians.
These leaders have no regard for education but concentrate on establishing their government for long years.
The years of civilian rule have been years of lack of focus; government educational program changed according to the taste of the political party in power.
Many science equipment and infrastructures are lying in waste in our schools because of instability in political government.
Yearly budget of Nigeria government revealed lack of focus and insincerity to good and quality education.
Nigeria government has not met the UNESCO recommendations of 26% of the total budgetary allocation to education sector as reflected in her yearly budget.
Nigeria is blessed with many natural resources on which her economy rest upon; however over dependent on petroleum has seriously affected the economy.
The effect is on science education since science equipment and apparatus are inadequate in the country and the cost of importing these materials is high because of exchange rate.
All effort to shift focus of economy from oil industry to other economic activities has not yield positive result because of corruption.
Science teacher’s salary and other allowances are not paid. Science equipment are not supplied due to declining in output and slow economic growth because of labour distortions, redundancy of the workforce, brain drain among others.
Science teachers are key factor to be considered when talking about the development of science education in any nation.
There are shortages of qualified science teachers in Nigerian schools. So called science teachers are not professionally qualified.
They may have the knowledge of the subject but lack the method. (Aina J K) on his study of challenges and prospects of primary science teaching affirmed that there are unqualified science teachers in our schools and which I can also testify to through my previous years in school at each level of my education.
Attitude of many teachers to teaching are discouraging; they have been teaching for many years without upgrading their certificate by going for in-service training. This affects their output and it is a problem to the development of science education.
Science teachers should use different strategies as there is no single universal approach for specific class. Many science teachers still hold to chalk and talk method which is not appropriate for science teaching in this age.
Lack of good strategies in the teaching of science is affecting student performance and at long run affects student enrolment.
Suggested solutions to the problems
There is no problem without solution, therefore what is happening presently in Nigeria as it affects the development of science education have solution if Nigerians are ready to pay the price.
Nigerians must be ready to wage total war against corruption; it should be a war that everybody must take part in. There should be laws made specifically for corruption and this law must be enforced no matter whom the corrupt person may be.
The law should touch every aspects of life; it should not be limited to money alone as it is presently, i.e. the government are only working on recovering the looted money but show less effort on putting the looters behind bars due to some reasons best known to the government.
Any government official who favoured anybody in admission, employment and promotion based on ethnicity or religion should be seriously sanctioned as someone who stole government money.
Various professional bodies in tertiary institutions should rise up to the present challenge and ensure they curtail the excesses of their members in schools.
There should be no sales of hand out in universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Violation of this law should be dismissal from the service and any book to be sold should be properly screen to know its worth in content and money.
Nigerians should change their orientation; worshipping wealth and position is not the best for us because it encourages corruption.
Someone who went to jail for stealing public money should not come out and become hero or king he should be seen as a bad person who has lost his respect and dignity.
Last note on corruption, there should be constitutional review and must be taking serious. It should stipulate a life imprisonment for any corrupt person or jail time depending on the level of crime.
This should be applicable to people in government establishment or private establishment, corruption is corruption once it is established the individual should be sent to life imprisonment or jail time depending on the level of crime.
Government should provide employment for young graduates; Nigeria is blessed with abundant resources that if properly keep in check, unemployment will reduce drastically in the nation.
Government should invent on agriculture since the nation is blessed with fertile lands. If government can invent on agriculture, there will be the job for the jobless and there will be improvement in economic security of the nation.
Scholarship should be awarded to science students and be thoroughly monitored to ensure money is release on time for same purpose.
In conclusion, from the above review it is obvious that science education is very imperative to national development; insecurity and corruption are the major problems militating against its development in Nigeria. However, there are other problems like unstable political system of government, poor economy, poor method of teaching and teachers’ attitude to teaching.
Overcoming the problems is the responsibility of everybody in the country. To overcome the problems government must create more job; corruption must be shun everywhere in the country; there must be continuity of government good program; diversification of economy to agriculture is necessary and science teachers must be ready for change in their method of teaching and attitude to work.
Aina, J.K. Challenges and prospects of primary science teaching in Nigeria. Continental J. Education Research, 5(2), 32-37.